Monday, December 24, 2012

VIJAYANAGARA COINS

     Vijayanagara Empire is one of the greatest dynasties in South Indian history. At its peak Vijayanagar city was one of the biggest and richest city of the world. The empire was established by Hariahara (Hakka) and Bukkaraya in year 1336 of Sangama dynasty under the guidance of Sri Vidyaranya Swamy. The empire named after its capital city Vijayanagara, now it is Hampi. There were 4 dynasties ruled Vijayanagara Sangama, Saluva, Tuluva and Araveedu. Devaraya II and Krishnadevaraya are among few famous rulers of Vijayanagar dynasty. Varaha was the 'Raja lanchana'(state emblem) of Vijayanagara kingdom. The emblem was the picture of a boar facing a sword with the Sun and the Moon above. On the national flags the varaha figures were displayed. The highest denomination gold coins were named after the varaha and was called as such. As one among the ten Avatharas of Lord Sri Mahavishnu, Lord Varaha Swami was, since the days of the Chalukyas of Badami, Symbolically portrayed in the form of an animal of a boar. This kingdom became the mighty Viajayanagara Empire (1336-1672) which ruled for 336 years the whole of peninsular India, South of the Tungabhadra- Krishna rivers with its influence, at times, extending to Sri Lanka.
Varaha, a gold coin with an approximate weight of 3.4 grams( 52 grains) was made the basic monetary unit. This coin was also called as Gadyana and Pon or Hon. To the English the coin was known as Pagoda.


GOLD COINS
Dodda varaha = Dodda gadyana =2 varahas = 120 grains
1 gadyana = 1 varaha = 1 pon or hon = pagoda = 52 grains
1 varaha = 2 pratapas = 52 grains = mada
1 pratapa = 2 katis = 26 grains = half varaha
1 kati = 13 grains = quarter varaha
1 varaha = 1- pana (each 5-6 grains) 1 chinna = one eigth varaha =6.5 grains
1 pana = 4 haga = 5-6 grains
 1 haga = 2 bele =1.5 grains 1 bele = 0.75 grain
The coinage was sub-divided into several denominations. Coins were issued in gold, silver and copper. The coins were mostly circular in shape and were undated. The lowest denomination coin was a copper piece which was equal to 1/3600 of gold varaha. The coins were hammer-struck.

COPPER COINS
Duggani = 2 kani or kakini = 250 grains
 kani = 125 grains = 2 Ara kani
Jital = One third of Tara
Kasu = 30 grains
Ara Kasu = 15 grains


DEVARAYA I

Deva Raya I (reigned 1406–1422 CE) was an emperor of the Vijayanagar Empire from the Sangam Dynasty. After Harihara II died there was a dispute between his sons for the throne of the ViKondavidu and the Gajaptis of Kalinga. Even so, Deva Raya was capable of managing the vast amount of territory that he controlled. Like his grandfather Harihara I, Deva Raya I patronised the Jain Kannada poet Madhura. During hisjayanagara in which Deva Raya I eventually come out as victor. Throughout his reign, Deva Raya was continually fighting against the Velamas of Telangana, the Bahmani Sultan of Gulbaraga, and the Reddis of  rule, a dispute over property between the Shanka Jainalya of Gadaga district and the Somesvara temple trust within the palace was settled amicably. An account of Persian writer Ferishta narrates how the king fell in love with a beautiful girl, Pertal from Mudugal in Raichur district, with the relationship leading to a war with the Bahmani Sultan and the eventual defeat of Deva Raya I, the Sultan marrying Deva Raya's daughter and getting Pertal married to his son Hasan Khan. 



Metal : Copper
Obverse : In circle of dots, bull to right with crescent moon and sun above.
Reverse : In circle of dots, 3 lines nagari legend "Sri Ni la Ka m ta"
Weight : 3.42 grams
Diameter : 1.4 cm
Reference : Karnataka Coins By K Ganesh #9.43

Metal : Copper
Obverse : Bull to Right with crescent moon and sun above
Reverse : Kannada legends "Sri De Va Ra Ya" with Dagger between conch and discuss
Weight : 3.6 Grams
Reference : Karnataka Coins By K Ganesh #9.41

Metal : Copper
Obverse : Bull to Right with crescent moon and sun above
Reverse : Kannada legends "Sri De Va Ra Ya" with Dagger between conch and discuss
Weight : 3.4 Grams
Reference : Karnataka Coins By K Ganesh #9.41

DEVARAYA II
Devaraya II was an Sangama Dynasty king of the Vijayanagar Empire. The king himself was scholar in Kannada and Sanskrit. Many poets such as Lakkana Dandesa, Chamarasa, Jakkanarya and Kumaravyasa gained his patronage. His rule was the golden age in the history of Karnataka. Devaraya II was has extended the Vijayanagar Empire from Odissa to Malabar and Ceylon to Gulbarga. His rule was also a time when art and culture flourished throughout the kingdom. He earned the title Gajabetegara as he was well versed in the art of elephant hunting. 




Metal : Copper
Obverse : Elephant to Right and kannada legend "A"
Reverse : Kannada Legends "Pra Ta Pa De Va Ra Ya"
Weight : 3.26 Grams
Diameter : 16 mm
Reference : Karnataka Coins By K Ganesh #9.57

KRISHNADEVARAYA
Krishna Deva Raya was an Emperor of the Vijayanagar Empire who reigned from 1509–1529 CE. He is the third ruler of the Tuluva Dynasty. Presiding over the empire at its zenith, he is regarded as an icon by many Indians. Emperor Krishna Deva Raya earned the titles Andhra Bhoja, Mooru Rayara Ganda (lit, "King of three Kings") and Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana (lit, "Lord of the Kannada empire"). He became the most powerful ruler of the southern peninsular of India by defeating the Sultans of Bijapur, Golconda and the Raja of Orissa. Krishna Deva Raya benefited from the able prime minister Timmarasu, who was regarded by the emperor as a father figure and was responsible for his coronation. Krishna Deva Raya was the son of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka an army commander under Saluva, who later took control of the empire to prevent its disintegration and became the founder of the Tuluva dynasty, the third Hindu Dynasty to rule Viajayanagara. The emperor's coronation took place on the birthday of Hindu God Krishna. He built a beautiful suburb near Vijayanagara called Nagalapura.The king was of medium height, had a cheerful disposition, and was reputed to be respectful to foreign visitors, ruthless in maintaining the law, and prone to fits of anger. The rule of Krishna Deva Raya was an age of prolific literature in many languages, although it is also known as a golden age of Telugu literature. Many Telugu, Sanskrit, Kannada and Tamil poets enjoyed the patronage of the emperor. Emperor Krishna Deva Raya was fluent in many languages. There remains a debate whether he was a Telugu, Kannadiga or Tuluva by lineage.



Metal : Copper
Value : Copper Tar
Obverse : Garuda to Left, with beaked face, wearing tall crown with two fillets,  hands joined on chest in the attitude of devotion. Garuda kneels on knee with right foot on ground in the Virasana posture.
Reverse : Three line Nagari legends "Sri Pra Ta Pa Ka Shna Ra Ya"
Weight : 9.63 Grams


Metal : Copper
Value : Jital
Obverse : Garuda facing Left, with beaked face, wearing tall crown with two fillets,  hands joined on chest in the attitude of devotion. Garuda kneels on knee with right foot on ground in the Virasana posture.
Reverse : Three line Nagari legends "Sri Pra Ta Pa Ka Shna Ra Ya"

Metal : Copper
Value : Jital
Obverse : Garuda to Left facing down, with beaked face, wearing tall crown with two fillets,  hands joined on chest in the attitude of devotion. Garuda kneels on knee with right foot on ground in the Virasana posture.
Reverse : Three line Nagari legends "Sri Pra Ta Pa Ka Shna Ra Ya"






Metal : Copper
Obverse : Garuda in different position
Reverse : Sri Pratapa Raya in Nagari


Metal : Copper
Ruler : Krishnadevaraya
Year : AD 1509 - 1530
Obverse : Bull, Sun and Moon
Reverese : Kannada Legends

Metal : Copper
Ruler : Krishnadevaraya
Year : AD 1509 - 1530
Obverse : Bull to Left, Sun and Moon
Reverese : Kannada Legends

Ruler : Krishnadevaraya
Year : AD 1509 - 1530
Metal : Copper
Obverse : Bull to Left
Reverse : Dagger and kannada legends

Metal : Copper
Obverse : Bull to left with crescent moon and sun.
Reverse : Nagari legends
Weight : 3.33 grams

THIRUMALARAYA
Tirumala deva Raya was first king of Aravidu dynasty. He was brother of Aliya Rama Ray, Son in law of famous king of Krishna Deva Raya. Tirumala Deva raya retained most of the Vijayanagar territories and assumed the title "Reviver of the Decadent Karnataka Empire".

Metal : Copper
Obverse : 2 Garuda facing each other with dagger
Reverse : Nagari legends "Cha la ma ra ya"
Weight : 2.9 grams
Reference : Karnataka Coins By K Ganesh #9.130

Metal : Copper
Obverse : Tusker Elephant to Left with sun and moon above and dagger in front.
Reverse : Nageri Legends "Cha La Ma Ra Ya"
Weight : 3.55 Grams
Diameter : 15 mm
Reference : Karnataka Coins By K Ganesh #9.127

Similar to above coin but different weight
Metal : Copper
Obverse : Tusker Elephant to Left with sun and moon above and dagger in front.
Reverse : Nageri Legends "Cha La Ma Ra Ya"
Weight : 3.2 Grams
Reference : Karnataka Coins By K Ganesh #9.127

Metal : Copper
Obverse : Garuda kneeling to left with a Dagger in front and conch, discus on either sides of head.
Reverse : 3 line Nagari legends
Weight : 3.46 Grams

Metal : Copper
Obverse: Large Conch to left and discus to right with crescent moon above and sun below.
Reverse : Dagger in center and Nagari legends "Cha La Ma Ra ya"
Weight : 3.44 Grams
Diameter : 15 mm
Reference : Karnataka Coins By K Ganesh #9.128

Metal : Copper
Obverse : Bull to Left
Reverse : Nagari Legends
Weight : 3.75 Grams

                           
Metal : Copper
Obverse : Bull to Left, a dagger in front, sun and moon above.
Reverse: Nagari Legends "Cha La Ma Ra Ya"
Weight :  3.4 Grams
Diameter : 15 mm
Reference : Karnataka coins By K Ganesh #9.129

VENKATA II
Venkata II (a.k.a. Venkatapati Deva Raya) (r. 1585–1614 CE) was the younger brother of Sriranga I (also the youngest son of Tirumala Deva Raya ) and the ruler of Vijayanagara Empire. His reign of three decades saw a revival of strength and prosperity of the empire. He dealt successfully with the Deccan sultans of Bijapur and Golkonda, the internal disorders, promoting economic revival in the country. He brought rebelling Nayaks of Tamil Nadu and parts of present day Andhra Pradesh under control.

Metal : Copper
Obverse : Lord Venkateshwara Standing
Reverse : Kannada Letter "Vi"
Weight : 1.68 grams

SHRIRANGARAYA II
Sriranga II (a.k.a.Sriranga Chika Raya) (r. 1614 CE) was nominated in 1614 by King Venkata II to succeed him as king of the Vijayanagara Empire in Southern India. Sriranga was supported by a faction headed by Yachama Naidu of Recherla Velama dynasty, one of the Venkata II's loyal viceroys and commanders, but was not favored by a set of nobles headed by Gobburi Jagga Raya, brother (or father) of Venkata II’s favourite Queen Obayamma.

Metal : Copper
Obverse : Bull to Right,  sun and moon on top
Reverse :  Telugu legends "Che ka ra ya lu"
Weight : 1.5 grams
Diameter : 12 mm
Reference : Karnataka Coins By K Ganesh #9.148


SHRIRANGARAYA III

Metal : Copper
Obverse : 2 Dieties
Reverse : Kanna legends "Shri Ran Ga"
Weight : 2.1 Grams


VIJAYANAGARA FEUDATORY

Vijayanagara Feudatory Issue
Metal : Copper
Obverse : Yazhi
Reverse : Sun and Moon

LAKKANA DANDANAYAKA
Lakkana Dandanayaka, the governor of Tekkali Rajya under king Devaraya II, minted his own coins with the sanction from the king. The coin below is similar to Devaraya II's Elephant type. The legend shows that it was the issue of Dandanayaka (Danayaka), general of the army and perhaps of a viceroy who had been authorized to issue coins in his own name. Daijayik Lakkaijna who was Viceroy in independent charge of the Madhura province under Devaraya II. Krishnasastri appears to approve of the attribution . This is perhaps the best solution of the problem, though it ought to be confessed that there are some difficulties. It is
doubtful if the first letter is 'la '. It could as well be read as Sri or Ni, and its appearance on the top of the obverse in several other varieties makes it most probably 'Sri '. Further, it is hard to understand why the second letter  'Kha ' is omitted. The reading of the third letter as ' Ma ' is not quite certain. The full name of the Viceroy of Madhura was Lakshrnana Danayaka, and he was generally called Lakkanna. It is not easy to understand why he is called ' La rna na ' on the coins. The last letter  'ru ' of the legend, a termination absent from the king's names even, shows that the Danayak was held in great esteem and perhaps fear, as
he and his brother were the men who reorganised the whole kingdom and helped the king to rule it.  

Vijayanagara Feudatory Issue
Metal : Copper
Obverse : Fine fully caparisoned tusker elephant moving to right with uplifted trunk and tail and above kannada letter "La"
Reverse : In linear border circle with outer circle of dots, 3 line kannada legends "Ma Na Da Na Ya Ka Ru"

Metal : Copper
Obverse : Fine fully caparisoned tusker elephant moving to right with uplifted trunk and tail and above kannada letter "La"
Reverse : In linear border circle with outer circle of dots, 3 line kannada legends "Ma Na Da Na Ya Ka Ru"
Weight : 3.47 Grams

UNIDENTIFIED COINS












3 comments:

  1. There were Eight great court poets during Sri Krishna Devaraya period, who produced some of the best Telugu Literature books. The poets were called Ashta Diggajalu.. meaning Eight Elephant like poets (literally meaning were of mighty stature!) They were 1.Alasani Peddana, 2. Dhoorjati, 3. Nandi Timmana, 4. Madayyagari Mallana, 5.Ayalraju Rama bhadrudu, 6. Tenali Rama Krishnudu, 7. Pingali Suranna , 8. Ramaraja Bhushanudu.

    M.V.Sitapati Rao of Hyderabad

    ReplyDelete
  2. first coin that you mentioned is not vijayanagara coin. Its cholas.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. This coin is not cholas coin, Chola style was copied by many south indian dynasties. Anyway i removed it from Vijayanagara coins, As per Ganesh book this coin belongs to Pallavas or Madurai nayakas.

      Delete